Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2014 Data Report: Intestine.
Junchao Cai, Guosheng Wu, Annie Qing, Matthew Everly, Elaine Cheng, and Paul Terasaki
Clinical Transplants 2014, Chapter 4
As of September 19, 2014, 2441 cases of intestinal transplantation have been performed in 46 centers (2400 deceased, 41 living). Eight centers did more than 100 transplants. Annual case numbers peaked in 2007 (N=198) and steadily decreased to 109 cases in 2013.
Short gut syndrome (68%) and functional bowel problems (15%) are two major indications for intestinal transplantation. The 3 major types of transplants involving the intestine include: isolated intestine transplant (I); simultaneous intestine, liver, and pancreas transplant (I+L+P); and, combined intestine and liver (I+L) transplant.
Graft survival has significantly improved in recent years, mainly due to improved first year graft survival. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survivals were: 74%, 42%,and 26%, respectively (I); 70%, 50%, and 40%, respectively (I+L+P); and 61%, 46%, and 40%, respectively (I+L). The longest graft survivals for I, I+L+P, and I+L were 19 years, 16 years, and 23 years, respectively.
Steroids, Thymoglobulin, and rituximab are 3 major induction agents used in recent years. Prograf, steroids, and Cellcept are 3 major maintenance agents. Induction recipients (68% of all patients) had a significantly lower acute rejection rate than nonrecipients before discharge (60% versus 75%, p<0.001). Most of the patients received 2 (53%) or 3 (25%) maintenance immunosuppressants. Acute rejection episodes were usually treated with one (60%) or two agents (27%). Steroids were most commonly used (50-60%). OKT3 has been replaced with antithymocyte globulin (since 1999) and rituximab (since 2006).
During 1990-2000, 94% (N=445) of patients received ABO identical intestinal transplants, while 6% (N=29) received ABO compatible transplants. ABO identical transplant recipients had a significantly higher 5-year graft survival rate than ABO compatible recipients (39% versus 21%, p<0.0001). In recent years (20012012), more patients received ABO compatible (N=188, 11%) than in the early decade (p<0.01). 5-year graft survival rates of ABO compatible transplants were lower than those of ABO identical transplants. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance (46% versus 49%, p=0.07). The effect of ABO compatibility on graft outcome was further confirmed by Cox Analysis. ABO incompatible transplants are still rarely performed (N=4) in intestine.In conclusion, annual case numbers of intestinal transplants have been decreasing, regardless of improved graft survival. ABO compatible intestinal transplants previously had a significantly lower graft survival rate than ABO identical transplants. However, the graft survival difference became less significant in recent years, possibly due to, or at least partly due to the use of new immunosuppressive agents.
Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2014 Data Report: Intestine
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