Impact of Donor Specific HLA Antibody Monitoring After Kidney Transplantation.
Rao S, Ghanta M, Lee IJ, Gillespie A, Parekh HK, Geier SS, Zeng X, Karachristos A, Lau KN, Karhadkar S, Di Carlo A, Sifontis NM, Constantinescu S.
Clinical Transplants 2014, Chapter 18
Kidney transplantation (KT) recipients with donor specific HLA antibodies (DSA) encounter higher rates of acute rejection and inferior allograft survival. We report our single center experience with prospective DSA monitoring and provide details of treatments utilized to overcome the potential impact of DSA in a cohort of predominantly African American adult KT recipients. Seventy-five flow crossmatch negative KT recipients underwent periodic screening for DSA utilizing the single antigen bead assay at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-transplant. Allograft biopsies were performed in the presence of DSA and/or evidence of graft dysfunction. The incidence of DSA was 23%, with a predominance of Class II antibodies. The rate of rejection was 6 times higher in DSA positive KT recipients compared to DSA negative patients (41% versus 7%, p = 0.004). In the DSA positive group, rejections occurred exclusively in the presence of de novo DSA and were predominantly antibody-mediated or mixed rejections. Despite a higher incidence of rejection in KT recipients with DSA, there were no significant differences in serum creatinine, graft survival, and patient survival between DSA positive and negative recipients at median follow-up f 18 months. DSA positive patients had significantly higher proteinuria compared to DSA negative recipients at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years of follow-up. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of DSA on allograft function could be mitigated by serial DSA surveillance, protocol biopsies, and alterations in immunosuppression. With these measures, the improvement in graft survival in DSA positive KT recipients, at least at short-term, is encouraging.