Donor Specific Antibodies Before and After Kidney Transplant: The University of Colorado Experience.
Cooper JE, Gralla J, Adebiyi O, Wiseman AC, Chan L.
Clinical Transplants 2013, Chapter 49
We summarize in this manuscript our donor specific antibody (DSA) screening experience in the past six years as it applies to pre-existing DSA, de novo DSA, and post-transplant DSA treatment. Of 547 patients receiving a kidney or kidney/pancreas with negative pre-transplant flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM), 196 had DSA (mean fluorescence intensity, MFI >or= 500) detected prior to transplant by single antigen bead analysis. Acute rejection rates at one year were similar in DSA+ versus DSA- (15% versus 12%, respectively, p=0.22), although acute rejection occurred earlier in the DSA+ group. De novo DSA was detected in 65 of 261 patients (27%). All DSA was detected within the first posttransplant year. While acute rejection was more likely in patients with de novo DSA (29% versus 9.5% in those with no DSA), prospective DSA screening failed to predict this outcome as DSA was detected at the time of or after a rejection episode in 16 of 19 patients with both DSA and acute rejection. Two-year estimated graft survival was significantly worse in patients with versus without DSA, but was identical when removing patients with a prior acute rejection episode from the analysis. We have used a protocol of high dose (5 gm/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin infused over the course of 6 months in patients with DSA and either chronic graft dysfunction or following a recent acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) episode. DSA MFI was reduced by 18% from the time of initiation to last follow up. This effect was largely due to reductions in class I DSA (-37%) and DSA in patients with a recent acute AMR (-51.5%), with a minimal effect on class II DSA and DSA in patients with chronic graft dysfunction. Despite treatment directed at antibody-producing plasma cells, antibody levels either persisted or worsened with no improvement in graft function. Overall, DSA is more amendable to treatment when associated with a recent acute rejection event.