Incidence and Hazards of Alloantibodies in Renal Transplantation.
Clinical Transplants 2013, Chapter 37
In the last 10 years, many reports on the impact of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been published. Now, in 2014, the overwhelming consensus is that antibodies cause allograft failure. Based on reports from East Carolina University, we now know that approximately 10% of patients will develop de novo donor specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) by 1-year post-transplant. Within 5 years, 20% of all transplanted patients will have de novo DSA. In those who develop de novo DSA, allograft failure rates are significantly higher than that of patients who do not develop DSA. By 1-year post-DSA appearance, 9% of patients' allografts will fail. By 3-years post-DSA appearance, 24% of patients' allografts will fail. In 2014, with estimates of incidence and risk defined for de novo DSA in renal transplantation, the focus is now on how to treat DSA. Currently, the options are limited. Future trials to investigate regimens that can durably remove de novo DSA and protect the allograft from antibody mediated damage are needed.