Flow Cytometry Crossmatch Before Kidney Transplantation in Contemporary Practice: Target Cell Utilization, Results Patterns, and Associated Long-term Graft Survival.
Lentine KL, Graff RJ, Xiao H, Modanlou KA, Salvalaggio PR, Brennan DC, Pinsky BW, Burroughs TE, Schnitzler MA.
Clinical Transplants 2008, Chapter 23
The flow cytometry crossmatch (FXCM) is an increasingly common method for pre-transplant crossmatching. We examined FCXM use in a national sample of kidney transplants, characterizing target cell utilization, results patterns, and associated graft outcomes. We queried Organ Procurement and Transplant Network Registry to identify kidney transplants performed in 1995-2007 with prospective FCXM testing for IgG antibodies against T-cells, B-cells or undifferentiated lymphocytes. FCXM was categorized according to target utilization and target-specific results. We modeled associations of FCXM testing-results patterns with risk of five-year graft loss and with projected graft survival by multivariable survival analysis. Sixty-five percent of the deceased donor transplants were performed with negative T-cell and B-cell FCXM, 16% with negative T-cell/unmeasured B-cell FCXM, 9% with negative undifferentiated lymphocyte FCXM, and < 0.5% with negative B-cell/unmeasured T-cell FCXM. Test results for at least one target were positive in 7.6% of transplants, most commonly in the form of B-cell positive/T-cell negative. Allograft survival was most favorable when both T-cell and B-cell FCXM targets were included and yielded negative results. Notably, B-cell positive/T-cell negative FCXM predicted elevated graft loss risk, with approximately 16% and 32% relative risk increases for deceased and living donor grafts, respectively, compared to negative T-cell and B-cell FCXM. Negative FCXM results with undifferentiated targets alone also predicted inferior graft survival. These data support the importance of using differentiated B-cell and T-cell targets for FCXM. Transplants that proceeded with positive FCXM experienced decrements in long-term graft survival - the decision to accept such risk must be individualized.