Urological Malignancy as a Complication of Renal Transplantation: A Report of Twelve Clinical Cases.
Zhou M, Zhu Y, Wang L, Wang Y, Fu S, Min Z.
Clinical Transplants 2006, Chapter 31
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiographic features of urological malignancy in renal allograft recipients (RAR) in a single center METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made on 3150 patients who received renal allografts from June 1978 until the autumn of 2006 and anti-rejection treatment for at least 3 months. RESULTS: Of the 3150 recipients, 33 (1.05%) developed malignancies, including 12 patients (0.38%; eight males and four females) with urological tumors and 21 patients with skin carcinoma, right liver lobular cystic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, colorectal carcinoma, ileocecal adenoma, lip cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Kaposi's Sarcoma, pulmonary lymphoma, and breast cancer. The 12 cases of urological malignancies included one case of renal cell carcinoma, one case of transplanted kidney carcinoma, two cases of bilateral pelvic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), three cases of unilateral pelvic TCC, one case of bilateral ureter TCC, one case of unilateral ureter TCC, and three cases of bladder TCC. The age at which the diagnosis was made ranged from 48 to 66 years with a mean of 58.3 +/- 4.6 years, and the mean course of immunosuppressive therapy ranged from 26 to 120 months with a mean of 62 +/- 18 months. Of the 12 patients who developed urological malignancies, six had been on a Oyclosporine A Azaithioprine Prednisone (OsA Aza Pred) protocol; five on a Oyclosporine A Mycophenolate Mofetil Prednisone (OsA MMF Pred) protocol; and one on a Tacrolimus Mycophenolate Mofetil Prednisone (FK506 MMF Pred) protocol. One of the 12 patients died soon after the diagnosis was made, and the remaining 11 patients received surgical resection. Of them, 10 patients survived well, and the other one died from cerebral hemorrhage soon after operation. CONCLUSION: Urological malignancies, especially TCC, are an important complication in renal transplanatation found in this center. The incidence of urological malignancy in renal allograft recipients (RAR) is about 10 times that found in the general population of Shanghai versus two times for other malignancies. The occurrence of the malignancies in PAR seems to be closely related to the use of immunosuppressive agents. lmmunosuppression results in the weakening of immunologic surveillance function, leading to mutation, aberration, and carcinogenesis. The immunological status of patients after renal transplantation should be assessed regularly. Painless macroscopic hematuria should be considered a significant sign in assessing the potential occurrence of urological malignancy in RAR. Treatment includes early diagnosis, timely surgical resection, and reduction of immunosuppressive agents.