Clinical and Anti-HLA Antibody Profile of Nine Renal Transplant Recipients with Failed Grafts: Donor-specific and Non-donor-specific Antibody Development.
Rebellato LM, Ozawa M, Verbanac KM, Catrou P, Haisch CE, Terasaki PI.
Clinical Transplants 2006, Chapter 18
This study applied the single antigen microsphere technology to the retrospective analysis of sequential post-transplant serum samples in the context of the patient's clinical course. Detailed information on nine of the study patients was presented as representative of the larger cohort and illustrative of different patterns of anti-HLA antibody development and different clinical scenarios that culminated in graft failure. Our major observations are summarized as follows: 1. These data confirm the high sensitivity of the single antigen bead method: In some patients, DSA and NDSA that were undetected by standard methods were found pre-transplant and in sequential post-transplant samples. 2. The precise role that anti-HLA antibody plays in a particular rejection are complicated in cases in which humoral rejection is not diagnosed in the biopsy: The possible involvement of ADCC and mechanisms involving an indirect role for antibody in the rejection process should be carefully investigated. 3. Although anti-HLA antibodies are associated with graft rejection, the time interval between detection and rejection can vary dramatically between patients. Both DSA and NDSA can be adsorbed by the graft and erratically detected in the circulation, in some cases remaining undetected until nephrectomy. 4. Anti-HLA antibody strengths often fluctuate widely over a patient's clinical course, with de novo DSA generally of greater strength than de novo NDSA. 5. In addition to DSA, we have observed the consistent induction of diverse, cross-reactive NDSA. This occurs not only during the post-transplant course but also after graft failure, when immunosuppression is tapered prior to nephrectomy. Our data support further studies to evaluate the value of prospective monitoring of anti-HLA antibodies to better understand the place of anti-HLA antibodies in acute rejection. This may improve our ability to reverse some acute rejection episodes. Since acute rejection has been considered a predictor of late graft loss via chronic allograft nephropathy, understanding and modifying the antibody response is critical to extending the longevity of transplanted organs. Finally, since the strong sensitization to NDSA will seriously hamper the ability to identify a compatible donor for a future transplant, these data reinforce the importance of minimizing HLA mismatches between the donor and the recipient.